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X.b Commercial lighting, appliances, and catering Costs

Technologies costed in this sector

  • Lighting
  • Lighting controls
  • Fridge/freezers

Please see: Commercial lighting and appliances cost data

Excluded are the cost of switching from gas to electric cookers and the cost of energy demand for cooking. Electricity demand from the non-domestic sector are included in costs.

Costs Methodology

Methodology used

The two levers for this sector are energy demand (for both cooking and electricity) and electrification of cooking. We are costing only the demand reduction of electricity for lighting and appliances, note electricity demand for heating and cooling is streated seperately in: IX.c Commercial heating and cooling Costs.

Lighting and appliances demand from the non-domestic sector can roughly be split into 3 service demands[1]:

Demand % Electricity
Lighting 53%
Refrigeration 18%
Other 29%

The costs we have collected so far address the first two but we would welcome costs for other appliance demands, although given the uncertainty out to 2050 of machinery/appliances used it may be better to focus on the first two demands which are unlikely to change.

Our cost driver for this sector is the difference between level 1 electricity demand and the level chosen by the user. This gives us TWh demand reduction from 2007-2050. We then multiply this by the energy saving assumptions from Commercial lighting and appliances cost data, which are represented in £/TWh lighting and appliances demand reduction. The figure used is defined by the bundles of technologies we have assumed for each level of demand reduction, this is summarised below:

Level Low High
1 0 -
2 95,059,012 329,485,676
3 310,688,997 621,377,994
4 329,485,676 658,971,352

The low costs are derived by taking the cheapest bundle of energy saving measures based on the cumulative saving needed for that level (see table below). The high costs for level 2 are assumed to be the highest average cost of all the technologies. Level 3 and 4 high costs are simply 100% the low costs in the absence of more data.

Technology Package Max. TWh Saving Cumulative max. TWh saving (£2010 per TWh)
Presence Detectors for Lighting 2.3 2.3 £326,391
Stairwell Timers for Lighting 1.4 3.7 £349,705
Most EE Freezers 0.7 4.4 £28,442,648
IRC Tungsten-Halogen - Spots 1.0 5.3 £41,498,290
Most EE Fridges 0.7 6.0 £42,430,836
Most EE Fridge-freezers 0.0 6.1 £106,776,500
ECG CFLs Replace Lamps 3.7 9.8 £223,811,004
16 mm Fluorescent Tubes Replace 26mm 1.6 11.4 £225,209,823
Metal Halide Floodlights 0.4 11.8 £255,983,836
HF Ballast 5.9 17.7 £454,149,829
Basic Lighting Timers 6.7 24.4 £472,334,473
Sunrise-Sunset Timers 0.7 25.2 £1,261,268,262
Light Detectors 0.7 25.9 £5,917,003,419

Please see 2050 Methodology for a full description of the costs approach in the Calculator.

Methodology issues and uncertainties

  • Cooking demand reduction ought to also be costed
  • The Markal technology packages for energy reduction are based on the baseline of lighting and appliances demand in MARKAL and the BRE study [2]. We have assumed the baseline scenarios are broadly similar, however the inconsistency of baselines may change costs.
  • We have assumed electrification of cooking is largely immaterial and we do not have a known split of gas to electric cooking equipment in the non-domestic sector but this may be a significant cost

Questions to stakeholders

  • Should electrification of cooking be costed? Is it a significant/material cost? Do we have estimates on the current split of cooking energy demand being provided by electric or gas cookers?

Technical Assumptions

Only demands for cooking and lighting and appliances, please see level 1 assumptions:

Non-domestic demand (exc heating), TWh 2007 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050
Lighting and Appliances (electricity) demand 59.16 59.57 61.67 63.84 66.10 68.45 70.88 73.41 76.03 78.76
Cooking demand 22.46 22.47 22.49 22.51 22.53 22.55 22.57 22.59 22.61 22.63

General Comments

Please use this space to make any general comments. Please add your name when commenting.

  1. Adapted from MARKAL 3.4 documentation
  2. Pout C and MacKenzie F (2006), Reducing Carbon Emissions from Commercial and Public Sector Buildings in the UK, BRE Client Report for Global Atmosphere Division, DEFRA.