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Default cost sources

I.a Conventional thermal plant Oil

Coal Gas Biomass

I.b Combustion + CCS Coal CCS

Gas CCS

II.a Nuclear power Nuclear plant

Uranium Uranium enrichment and disposal

III.a.1 Onshore wind Onshore wind
III.a.2 Offshore wind Offshore wind
III.b Hydroelectric Hydroelectric
III.c Wave and Tidal Wave

Tidal range Tidal stream

IV.a Distributed solar PV Distributed solar PV
IV.c Micro wind Micro wind
V.a Biomatter to fuel conversion Dry biomass and waste to Solid

Dry biomass and waste to Liquid Dry biomass and waste to Gas Wet biomass and waste to Solid Wet biomass and waste to Liquid Energy crops (second generation) to Solid Energy crops (second generation) to Liquid Energy crops (second generation) to Gas Energy crops (first generation) to Solid Energy crops (first generation) to Liquid Energy crops (first generation) to Gas Gaseous waste to Solid Gaseous waste to Liquid

V.b Bioenergy imports Solid

Liquid

VI.a.Bioenergy Agriculture and land use Energy crops (first generation)
VI.a.Emissions Agriculture and land use Energy crops (second generation)

Energy (straw) Energy (wood waste) Energy (manure)

VII.b Electricity grid distribution
VII.c Storage, demand shifting, backup Back-up CCGT
VIII.a H2 Production SMR - Central

SMR - Distributed DWE Liquefaction Pipeline

IX.a.Heating Domestic heating Solid wall insulation

Cavity wall insulation Floor insulation Superglazing Lofts Draughtproofing

XII.a.ICE Passenger transport CAR ICE

CAR PHEV CAR EV CAR FCV BUS ICE BUS HEV BUS EV

XII.b Domestic freight Rail freight - Diesel fuel use

Rail freight - Electricity use Road freight - Distance (HGVs), diesel XV.a Petroleum refineries

35th Centile

III.d Geothermal Geothermal
IV.b Distributed solar thermal Distributed solar thermal

Wet biomass and waste to Gas Gaseous waste to Gas Improved soil management level 1 Improved soil management level 2 Improved animal breeding and husbandry Improved manure management (excluding Anaerobic Digestion)

VI.b.Bioenergy Energy from waste Collection of Household, C&I
VI.b.Waste Waste arising Preparing for use for energy

Recycling Household, C&I Separating wet waste from Household, C&I Landfill site Capturing the landfill gas Recovering the landfill gas for energy Recovering sewage sludge for energy

VI.c Marine algae Marine algae
VII.a.Imports Electricity imports Desertec

Interconnector

VII.a.Exports Electricity Exports
VII.c Storage, demand shifting, backup Pumped Sorage

Interconnector

IX.a.Heating Domestic heating New build

Gas boiler (old) Gas boiler (new) Resisitive heating Oil-fired boiler Solid-fuel boiler Stirling engine μCHP Fuel-cell μCHP Air-source heat pump Ground-source heat pump Geothermal Community scale gas CHP Community scale solid-fuel CHP District heating from power stations Residential: air conditioner District heating

IX.c Commercial heating and cooling Gas boiler (old)

Gas boiler (new) Resisitive heating Oil-fired boiler Solid-fuel boiler Stirling engine μCHP Fuel-cell μCHP Air-source heat pump Ground-source heat pump Geothermal Community scale gas CHP Community scale solid-fuel CHP District heating from power stations Electric air conditioner District Heating

X.a Domestic lighting, appliances, and cooking
X.b Commercial lighting, appliances, and catering
XI.a Industrial processes
XII.a. Domestic passenger transport BIKE

BUS FCV RAIL DIESEL RAIL ELECTRIC Domestic AIR

XII.b Road freight Distance (HGVs), electric
XIV.a Geosequestration
XVI.a Fossil fuel transfers
XVII.a District heating effective demand
XVIII.a Storage of captured CO2