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sources of default costs

Sources of Default Costs

MARKAL 3.26

  • Oil
  • Coal
  • Gas
  • Biomass
  • Coal CCS
  • Gas CCS
  • Nuclear plant
  • Uranium
  • Uranium enrichment and disposal
  • Onshore wind
  • Offshore wind
  • Hydroelectric
  • Wave
  • Tidal range
  • Tidal stream
  • Distributed solar PV
  • Micro wind
  • Dry biomass and waste to Solid
  • Dry biomass and waste to Liquid
  • Dry biomass and waste to Gas
  • Wet biomass and waste to Solid
  • Wet biomass and waste to Liquid
  • Energy crops (second generation) to Solid
  • Energy crops (second generation) to Liquid
  • Energy crops (second generation) to Gas
  • Energy crops (first generation) to Solid
  • Energy crops (first generation) to Liquid
  • Energy crops (first generation) to Gas
  • Gaseous waste to Solid
  • Gaseous waste to Liquid
  • Solid Bioenergy imports
  • Liquid Bioenergy imports
  • Energy crops (first generation)
  • Energy crops (second generation)
  • Energy (straw)
  • Energy (wood waste)
  • Energy (manure)
  • Electricity grid distribution
  • Electricity grid transmission
  • Back-up CCGT
  • SMR - Central
  • SMR - Distributed
  • DWE
  • Liquefaction
  • Pipeline
  • Solid wall insulation
  • Cavity wall insulation
  • Floor insulation
  • Superglazing
  • Lofts
  • Draughtproofing
  • CAR ICE
  • CAR PHEV
  • CAR EV
  • CAR FCV
  • BUS ICE
  • BUS HEV
  • BUS EV
  • Rail freight - Diesel fuel use
  • Rail freight - Electricity use
  • Road freight - Distance (HGVs), diesel
  • Petroleum refineries

35th Centile

  • Geothermal
  • Distributed solar thermal
  • Wet biomass and waste to Gas
  • Gaseous waste to Gas
  • Improved soil management level 1
  • Improved soil management level 2
  • Improved animal breeding and husbandry
  • Improved manure management (excluding Anaerobic Digestion)
  • Collection of Household, C&I
  • Preparing for use for energy
  • Recycling Household, C&I
  • Separating wet waste from Household, C&I
  • Landfill site
  • Capturing the landfill gas
  • Recovering the landfill gas for energy
  • Recovering sewage sludge for energy
  • Marine algae
  • Desertec
  • Interconnector
  • Electricity Exports
  • Pumped Sorage
  • Interconnector
  • New build
  • Gas boiler (old)
  • Gas boiler (new)
  • Resisitive heating
  • Oil-fired boiler
  • Solid-fuel boiler
  • Stirling engine μCHP
  • Fuel-cell μCHP
  • Air-source heat pump
  • Ground-source heat pump
  • Geothermal
  • Community scale gas CHP
  • Community scale solid-fuel CHP
  • District heating from power stations
  • Residential: air conditioner
  • District heating
  • Gas boiler (old)
  • Gas boiler (new)
  • Resisitive heating
  • Oil-fired boiler
  • Solid-fuel boiler
  • Stirling engine μCHP
  • Fuel-cell μCHP
  • Air-source heat pump
  • Ground-source heat pump
  • Geothermal
  • Community scale gas CHP
  • Community scale solid-fuel CHP
  • District heating from power stations
  • Electric air conditioner
  • District Heating
  • Domestic lighting, appliances, and cooking
  • Commercial lighting, appliances, and catering
  • Industrial processes
  • BIKE
  • BUS FCV
  • RAIL DIESEL
  • RAIL ELECTRIC
  • Domestic AIR
  • Distance (HGVs), electric
  • Road freight
  • Geosequestration
  • Fossil fuel transfers
  • District heating effective demand
  • Storage of captured CO2

Others

(Department for Transport or DECC Fossil Fuel Price Projections)

  • International aviation
  • International shipping (maritime bunkers)
  • Indigenous fossil-fuel production - Coal
  • Indigenous fossil-fuel production - Oil
  • Indigenous fossil-fuel production - Gas
  • Balancing imports - Coal
  • Balancing imports - Oil
  • Balancing imports - Gas