Passenger rail modelled in vehicle units using DfT veh/mile cost multiplied by average unit mileage.
Low (future 2050) rail costs based on advice from DfT of 30% reduction by 2030 followed by a further 15% by 2050. Applied to capex and opex.
These are unit/carriage/veh costs and not whoel trainset costs. 2050 model works at this unit level.