For all technologies of CAR, BUS, RAIL and AIR MARKAL, ESME and DfT input assumptions have been used. These are the latest available assumptions.
In order to derive a range for the cost figures, 2000 figures are used for the high and 2050 for the low - in the model these are applied as a triangular range.
MARKAL costs in billion veh kms per annum are converted into vehicles required using MARKAL estimates of average annual kms per technology. Costs then spread over assumed life-time per technology using MARKAL estimates of vehicle life. Each trajectory in the 2050 Calculator indicates distances by technology. These are converted into vehicles required using MARKAL assumption of average annual km by technology and the resultant required vehicles is costed against the per unit cost.
Issues and cross checks It is understood that MARKAL costs exclude infrastructure costs (including highways, highway infrastructure, rail infrastructure, electric veh charging points etc) – though rail does have a forecast that does include electrification costs.